USA – Eli Lilly is expanding its presence in genetic medicine by partnering with ProQR Therapeutics in a research partnership that’s centered on the Dutch biotech company’s technology for editing RNA.

The two companies will use ProQR’s “Axiomer” platform, which is designed to enable the editing of single nucleotides within RNA, a potentially useful tool for correcting the effects of disease-causing genetic mutations. They will collaborate on as many as five potential treatments for liver and nervous system conditions.

Per deal terms, Lilly will pay ProQR US$20 million in cash up front and make an equity investment of US$30 million in the company.

ProQR could also receive as much as US$1.25 billion more in conditional payments if certain development, regulatory and sales goals are met.

Much of the attention in the genetic editing world in recent years has been on CRISPR and the “genetic scissors” that allow researchers to make targeted changes to DNA.

Initial results have been encouraging. Earlier this summer, a CRISPR medicine developed by Intellia Therapeutics and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals provided the first clinical evidence that the gene editing technology could work when delivered systemically into the body.

Lilly, which previously was not invested heavily in the field, has begun to take an interest in DNA editing as well, licensing technology from Precision Biosciences last year.

Along with the optimism comes concerns about the unknowns of making permanent changes in DNA, proponents of RNA editing claim it offers a way to address genetic mutations with less risk because it’s temporary and reversible.

The promise of RNA editing has sparked multiple startups, including Shape Therapeutics and Korro Bio. Shape already snagged a partnership with Roche that may be worth as more than US$3 billion if the companies are successful in developing treatments for diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Both ProQR and Lilly have been working on RNA therapies for some time. In January, ProQR announced it had completed enrollment of a pivotal trial for its sepofarsen treatment for a rare genetic condition that leads to blindness.

The company’s eye injection works by binding to mutated RNA to allow splicing needed to produce an essential protein for vision.

Lilly, meanwhile, has signed a number of deals focused on RNA-based medicines in recent years. The company in May announced an agreement with MiNA Therapeutics to collaborate on as many as five targets using that company’s small activating RNA technology.

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